Ottoman Empire formally surrendered in December 1917 after the Battle of Jerusalem. After the surrender of Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, and Hungary in the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, the U.S.S.R. aided in quelling the rebellion in the Turkish War of Independence leading to a short-lived alliance between the Ottoman monarchy and the Soviets.
Due to rampant inflation and harsh penalties, unrest grew in the defeated Germany. This led to an economy of fear capitalized on by the National Socialists led by Anton Drexler. Drexler led a campaign to create an oligarchy in Germany that would reunite Germany in prosperity: economic, social, and militaristic. Drexler became the Fuhrer in 1934, although his reign was publicly understood as being the figurehead for the oligarchy he had proposed. Central to the party's draw of power was that of fearmongering and racism, especially antisemitism.
In a weekend in April of 1937, The U.S.S.R. absorbed and quickly overwhelmed the Ottoman Monarchy's capital of Constantinople. A treaty was agreed upon wherein the Ottoman Monarchy would rule in the image of the Soviets for various rights of land usage.
Following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 7 July 1937, China and Japan became embroiled in a full-scale war. The Soviet Union, wishing to keep China in the fight against Japan, supplied China with military assistance until 1941, when it signed a non-aggression pact with Japan. Continuous clashes between the Communists and Nationalists behind enemy lines culminated in a major military conflict between these two former allies that effectively ended their cooperation against the Japanese.
The Second Great War Edit
The Second Great War began in 1939 when Drexler and Nazi Germany invaded Poland. Reforming their previous alliance, Great Britain and France began fortifying what was possible in an effort to stop Nazi aggression. Wary of Germany's hubris and drive, the Soviet Union joined the alliance against Germany.
Simultaneously, the Soviets, using their foothold in the Ottoman Empire, began sweeping eastward across Persia and Afghanistan. The British Empire started pushing back from India and Pakistan, with small but deadly skirmishes breaking out in the desert.
France's defeat become apparent in early 1940, and Italy, under Benito Mussolini, joined with Germany. The war continued primarily between the European Axis powers and the coalition of the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth, with campaigns including the North Africa and East Africacampaigns, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz bombing campaign, the Balkan Campaign as well as the long-running Battle of the Atlantic. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history, which trapped the major part of the Axis military forces into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, and Germany and Italy were defeated in North Africa and then, decisively, at Stalingrad in the Soviet Union. In 1943, with a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasion of Sicily and the Allied invasion of Italy which brought about Italian surrender, and Allied victories in the Pacific, the Axis lost the initiative and undertook strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands.
The war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the subsequent German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945. Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings and the Soviet invasion of Manchuria, Japan formally surrendered on 2 September 1945. Thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies.
The Cold War Edit
The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonization of Africa and Asia began. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
In a measure of constant oneupsmanship and competition, the Soviets and Americans poured trillions of dollars into scientific and militaristic advancements: space flight, nuclear arms development, and cloning.